如何写好Summary or Abstract?(内附模板)

在大多数情况下,摘要是你的文章中唯一出现在Web of Science或PubMed等索引数据库中的部分,因此将是你文章中访问量最大的部分;留下良好的印象将鼓励研究人员阅读您的论文全文。本质上,Summary和Abstract都是对是一篇研究论文的简要总结,但表现形式有些许不同,Summary一般用段落式的总结,而我们常说的Abstract是指结构性摘要,呈现在文章中就是introduction,methods,results和conclusion,具体要求哪一种摘要可以查阅期刊的作者指南或参考该期刊已发表的文章。

结构性摘要

  • Background/Introduction

用1-2句话介绍一下背景知识,包括
1.与论文有关的关于该主题的已知知识
2.关于该主题尚不清楚,因此该研究打算研究哪些内容(可以结合研究目的)
这段可以有一个过渡,先用1个句子让任何一个领域的读者都能读懂,然后才是针对相关领域读者的更详细的背景介绍。

示例:

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most frequent type of ovarian carcinoma, associated with poor clinical outcome and metastatic disease[让任何一个领域的读者都能读懂]. Although metastatic processes are becoming more understandable, the genomic landscape and metastatic progression[更详细的背景介绍] in HGSOC has not been elucidated[该主题尚不清楚].

其他的表达:

The role of … is controversial.[该主题尚不清楚] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of …[研究目的]
Few studies have prospectively examined…
However, the precise roles of … during this process are unknown.
…is a barrier to overcoming therapy resistance.
…has provided noteworthy benefits in multiple cancers in recent years; however, its clinical benefits remain confined to 10–40% of patients with extremely high costs.
To characterize its mutational profile,…
…play a pivotal role in, however,…have remained elusive.Our aim with this paper was …

  • Methods:应用什么有效和可靠的方法来获得结果。

    • 总的来说包括:
      研究是怎么设计的?
      数据来源是什么?
      整个样本或不同组的样本容量是多少?
      主要的结果是如何测量和比较的?
      统计方法是什么?

    • 生物学或临床领域的应提及所研究的生物,细胞系或种群。
      对于生态论文,研究的地点通常是重要的信息。
      描述临床试验的论文应提及样本量,患者组,剂量和研究持续时间。

To answer this question, we compared
Here, we investigated
Here, we designed/conducted
We generated a model of…
We analysed/measured
Furthermore, we observed
In this study, 215 participants were randomly assigned to [实验条件] or [对照条件].

Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on HGSOC primary tumours and their metastases (n = 33 tumour regions) from six patients.

  • Results:清楚描述您研究中最重要的发现

先用1句话概括主要结论

Here, we report …[分子/药物] that exhibit strong anti-tumor effects in multiple types of cancers.
Here we show that the vertebrate kinesin-5 Eg5 drives the sliding of microtubules depending on their relative orientation.

然后按照文章的研究顺序,用2-3句话选出最重要的几条结果描述即可,但是要注意这一段的表述要非常精确,在比较结果时避免使用类似”very”, “small”, or “significant.”的词,而要具体阐明有什么变化。

This study discovers significant upregulation of
We demonstrate
Specifically, we show that
We propose that

  • Conclusion:说明您的工作在理论上或实践上的含义或描述您的工作如何推动该领域的发展

This study provides deeper insights into … that can pave the way to new therapeutic targets.
…represents a promising strategy for the treatment of …
Together, these results indicate that
Overall, this large study provides deep insights into…, and their potential relationships with survival and tumor features.
We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for more sophisticated.

段落式的Summary/Abstract

段落式要包含的内容基本上和结构性摘要差不多,但是更注重每个独立部分的连接和融合。Cell Press和Nature的期刊都是段落式的Summary/Abstract,大家可以查阅具体类型的文章进行进一步的摘要写作学习。

  • 可以把研究背景与主要结果融合

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy with its global incidence and mortality
rate continuing to rise, although early detection and surveillance are suboptimal, thus this study we evaluated…

  • 可以把部分方法和结果融合,如“通过…方法来得到…结论”

By correlating intracellular metabolite levels with radiation resistance across dozens of genomically-distinct models of GBM, we find that

Here, we performed a genome-wideCRISPR loss-of-function screen to identify Foxp3 regulators in mouse primary Treg cells, which were enriched in genes encoding subunits of the SWISNF nucleosome-remodeling and SAGA chromatin-modifying complexes.

We show that genetic depletion and pharmacological inhibition of FTO dramatically attenuate leukemia stem/initiating cell self-renewal and reprogram immune response by suppressing expression of immune checkpoint genes, especially LILRB4.

  • 可以把主要结论和研究意义结合

A transition model from the nsp7-nsp8 hexadecameric primase complex to the nsp12-nsp7-nsp8 polymerase complex is also proposed to provide clues for the understanding of the coronavirus transcription and replication machinery.

下面以Nature的Sample来给大家解读一下Summary具体要怎么写。

  • 大背景

用一到两句话介绍广泛的背景知识,目的是能让各个领域的学者都能读懂。

During cell division, mitotic spindles are assembled by microtubule-based motor proteins.

在示例中,介绍了细胞分裂过程中,纺锤体的组成。

  • 小背景

用两到三句话结合文章研究对象提供更详细的背景介绍,能让相关领域的学者读懂。

The bipolar organization of spindles is  essential for proper segregation of chromosomes, and requires plus-end-directed homotetrameric motor proteins of the widely conserved kinesin-5 (BimC) family. Hypotheses for bipolar spindle formation include the ‘push−pull mitotic muscle’ model, in which kinesin-5 and opposing motor proteins act between overlapping microtubules.

在示例中,提到了双极纺锤体的形成假说,以及涉及到的关键蛋白kinesin-5 family. 可以用到… is  essential for …, and requires [关键分子/其他研究对象];in which…act…等句子。

  • 研究目的

用一句话清楚地说明你的研究要解决的一般问题。

However, the precise roles of kinesin-5 during this process are unknown.

可以像示例这样说the precise roles of … are unknown,也可以直接说Our aim with this paper was…

  • 研究最主要的结果

用一些here we show之类的表达,一句话总结提炼文章最主要结果

Here we show that the vertebrate kinesin-5 Eg5 drives the sliding of microtubules depending on their relative orientation.

  • 研究的主要结果

两三句话概括其他的主要结果,这些结果与以往的知识有什么不一样。

We found in controlled in vitro assays that Eg5 has the remarkable capability of simultaneously moving at ~20 nm s–1 towards the plus-ends of each of the two microtubules it crosslinks. For anti-parallel  microtubules, this results in relative sliding at ~40 nm s–1, comparable to spindle pole separation rates in vivo. Furthermore, we found that Eg5 can tether microtubule plus-ends, suggesting an additional microtubule-binding mode for Eg5.

在这个部分还可以结合研究方法一起说,如示例中的“We found in controlled in vitro assays that…”,“…comparable to spindle pole separation rates in vivo”。还要注意使用恰当连词连接不同的实验结果。

  • 得出结论

一到两句话把结论放在一个一般的语境中,结合大背景小背景以及研究目的,上下文呼应。

Our results demonstrate  how members of the kinesin-5 family are likely to function in mitosis, pushing apart interpolar microtubules as well as recruiting microtubules into bundles that are subsequently polarized by relative sliding.

示例中这一段讲的是这项研究表明了kinesin-5家族的成员如何在有丝分裂中发挥作用的,紧密结合了上文的研究目的。

  • 研究意义

两到三个句子,结合研究意义给广大读者提供更广阔的视野,即你的研究将会启示什么进一步的研究/开发。

We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of mitotic spindles. For example, the individual and combined action of multiple mitotic motors could be tested, including minus-end-directed motors opposing Eg5 motility. Furthermore, Eg5 inhibition is a major target of anti-cancer drug development, and a well-defined and quantitative assay for motor function will be relevant for such developments.

在示例中,作者就认为他们的研究将启示有丝分裂纺锤体更复杂的体外模型的研究。此外,还可以针对Eg5抑制来开发抗癌药物。

(此示例在没有最后一段的情况下为190个单词,加上最后一个部分为250个单词)。

写作与投稿

如何使用Web of science进行选刊

2020-8-18 19:20:16

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SCI只查重文本还不够 小心「图片查重」被拒稿

2020-8-20 21:44:12

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